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Thursday, 13 October 2016

The International Vision of British Unitarians - 2016 Channing Lecture

This blogpost is based on the William Ellery Channing Lecture which I delivered at Golders Green Unitarians on 23 April. 2016.
Channing Statute in Boston
Channing was the foremost American Unitarian of the 19th Century and when I was recently in Boston I was pictured alongside his portrait which is one of only two that have been displayed in the new headquarters of the Unitarian Universalist Association.

My lecture had the title “The International Vision of British Unitarians”. The UUA has a project “Heritage and Vision at 24” using new technologies to tell their story. The intention is “to expand on our storied past, and connect it in a living stream to our dynamic present and our exciting future”. This inspired me to look for some stories of our international engagement that would do the same.

I would suggest that in taking forward this international vision that the work of British Unitarians can be characterised in four ways; Mission,  Solidarity, Generosity and Inclusion. I have drawn from a period of our history; 1890s to the 1920s when we were strong yet it was a time of great change.


India remains a key part of our international story right from the foundation of the Madras Church by the former slave, William Roberts to Rev Margaret Barr working in the Khasi Hills from 1933 until her death in 1973. I told the story of the first visit by a representative of the BFUA to India in the 1890s. Rev Dr Jabez T. Sunderland had only intended spending a quiet summer and autumn in England in1895 before travelling to Egypt. He was prevailed upon by the “men from the B&FUA” to go as their representative on a four month trip to India reporting to the Annual Meetings in May 1896.

We remember today that Hajom Kissor Singh as the founder of the Khasi Unitarians in 1887 when he rejected the Calvinistic Methodism brought to his homeland in North East India by Welsh missionaries. He was given a volume of the works of William Ellery Channing and found he was a Unitarian. He began to hold services in his home and slowly gathered a small group. Sunderland visited and ordained a former Methodist evangelist as their first minister.

Yet at the time the more significant work he undertook was to develop closer relationships with the Brahmo Samaj, the liberal theistic Hindu group established by Raja Rammohan Roy, with whom English Unitarians had had a long association. Sunderland also spoke to huge audiences including on education to 6000 people at the National Congress of India; the forerunner of today’s Congress Party of India.

As a result of Sunderland’s visit the B&FUA appointed a missionary; initially only a visit by Rev James Harwood and then a three year appointment of Rev S Fletcher Williams. The latter believed that the best way to spread liberal religion in India was to support the Brahmo Samaj and his most enlightening experience was to join the Brahmos in conducting a religious service at the Albert Hall in Calcutta for several months each Sunday which drew Brahmos, Christians and Muslims in a united congregation.

Today our work with India continues especially in the Khasi Hills and Unitarian talent and money has gone to support the causes close to the heart of Rev Margaret Barr, however, our links with the Brahmos are weak.


My second theme is solidarity, meaning support and assistance to existing Unitarian groups. The links with the Transylvanian Unitarians go back to earliest day of the B&FUA. This story was the support and advocacy given the Transylvania in the post-World War One era and is I believe the most important contribution of British Unitarians to public affairs certainly in the last century. It shows a high degree of political mobilisation and sophistication due to the leadership of B&FUA Secretary, Rev W. Copeland Bowie. The campaign was widely covered in “The Inquirer” of the day whose role as a campaigning tool at the time has not again been recognised.

The end of World War one say the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire and the harsh military occupation of Transylvania by Romania. Reports were received that the Unitarian Bishop Joseph Ferencz had been imprisoned – it seems held hostage for the good behaviour of his community - and British Unitarians began to use all their political muscle to raise their concerns. By the end of 1919 “The Inquirer” was reporting on expulsions from Kolozsvar, “pillaging and executions” and of historic significance to Unitarians, the destruction of the memorial stone in Deva to the memory of Francis David – what we would call cultural genocide today.

In November the Rev W H Drummond was sent by the B&FUA to Transylvania and was the first Englishman to visit after the end of the War. He returned via Paris where he reported to the British and American delegations to the Peace Conference. His three page report was published in full in “The Inquirer” and reproduced as a supplement. Such was the Unitarian influence that on 30 January 1920, Rev Copeland Bowie was invited with the Archbishop of Canterbury and Rev F B Meyer to meet the Romanian Prime Minister of Romania at the Carlton Hotel. When Transylvania was transferred to Romania under the Treaty of Trianon safeguards were given on minority rights and violations remained a concern to Unitarians.

Today we recently joined ICUU in supporting the Unitarian Church in Burundi when its leader and members suffered as a result of political unrest. Rev Fulgence Ndagijimana has fled to Canada seeking refuge and his family are in the US British Unitarians raised funds for the Church and I used political contacts to raise his persecution and imprisonment directly with the Foreign Office. Others in Canada and the US did the same.


The third feature of British Unitarian international engagement is that of generosity. In five years the Special India Fund raised the equivalent of over £530,000 at todays value. An appeal for the “Starving Children in Europe” was launched by the B&FUA for a collection at the services on Sunday 28 December 1919 and raised £2,569 which is about £131,000 at 2016 prices. This was at a time of “home” demands, including an appeal for £20,000 (£1million) to support the “Stipends of Ministers and the Education of their Children” and £10,00 for the National Unitarian War Memorial – “The Florence Nightingale Convalescent Home” in Great Hucklow..

Today the Unitarian Clara Barton Red Cross Fund has raised what must be fast-approaching £100,000 for emergency and crisis relief and locally Unitarians are active fundraisers for many causes.


The story here is a desire to bring together religious liberals in an inclusive way and led in 1900 to the establishment of an International Council of Unitarian and other Liberal Religious Thinkers and Workers (Now IARF).. Great international congresses took place before the advent of World War One. It had been intended in October 1914, had war not intervened, to have a World Pilgrimage of Religious Liberals funded in part by the B&FUA, which entailed a group of diverse western theists journeying round the world but especially to encounter the East.

Today we continue to participate and lead in IARF both globally, regionally within the Europe and Middle East region and nationally in co-operation with others such as the World Congress of Faith, Religions for Peace and the Interfaith Network. Having led the way the interfaith scene is now much fuller and rich.

In conclusion I feel that the tension – I hope creative tension – between the various themes still raise issues for us. The International vision of British Unitarians was not about expanding Unitarianism across the globe but more a commitment to promoting liberal religion. This is a staggeringly open and inclusive perspective for the time and indeed for today.

Friday, 7 October 2016

Unitarian Congregational Growth and Change 2.

My last blog has produced some positive feedback so I would like to follow it up with more advice for congregational leaders on growth and change. I hope it is also encouraging for ordinary chapel and church members who may worry about the future. This draws upon work carried out in East London by The Centre for Theology and Community (CTE).

They have found that attitude rather than theological tradition is the key determinant of growth. Our tendency has been on occasion to see churches with rigid doctrines that are growing and then excuse ourselves by saying that we demand more from those who commit to us; it is harder to be free-thinkers. So it is not all about evangelical churches with their Alpha courses. Growth is actually happening in churches with very different theologies and liturgies. On this evidence I see no reason why Unitarian and Free Christian churches should not grow. But as the report observes “the degree of intentionality behind growth is related to the likelihood of growth. Those [congregations] that have seen significant growth, it seems, have made structural changes in terms of leadership or “models” of church”.

These growing churches have a clear vision of their goals, and engage in “conscious self-reflection” on what it means to be both faithful and effective in their local context. There is no one-size-fits-all pattern to follow, however, three factors seem important:

Pursing a deeper common life of worship and prayer
An enterprising use of assets, including property, for mission
A commitment to working for the common good with others in the local community

Attitude must underpin these approaches. Unitarians should be able to apply these factors to their local situation and I know some congregations are already doing so. This is where we can draw upon our own tradition of reason; we have never been afraid to look at the evidence and learn even if it challenges long held beliefs.

So let us not dismiss growth as simply an obsession with “bums on seats” but an opportunity to change lives. As Canon Archie Richie has written “an empty church cannot embark on any of the activities we rightly value; worshipping God, growing together, showing hospitality and acting for social justice”.

We certainly have the skills locally to reflect on changes in the demographics of local areas and how we can connect to the people who now live there. If we do not do this the evidence is that, especially in urban areas undergoing rapid social change, we will slowly fade away. Community organising has proved to be one way to change the focus in a congregation – especially in developing new leaders through action.

So are we “missing a trick?" “Next Steps” has reinforced that our 2020 congregational growth programme should be expanded and more new or rekindled congregations established, what others call “church planting”.  Without this all the evidence from many studies is that decline will not be reversed. So are we willing to reflect, learn, change and adapt.

This blog first appeared in The Unitarian (October 2016) as "A View from Essex Hall"

Tuesday, 4 October 2016

Unitarian Congregational Growth and Change 1.

One of the most useful aspects of the recent Conference in the Netherlands organized by the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists (ICUU), the global Unitarian body, was the opportunity to share practical experiences of congregational life. Congregations remain the way that our Unitarian faith is expressed in most parts of the world; recognizing of course that for some the online experience is now part of the mix.

We had the one-to-one chats over coffee and meals and drinks; we do this’ what do you do? Really! There were more formal networking opportunities and also a day of workshops and a day of more substantial learning sessions. There were excellent programmes for individual personal development which should enhance leadership capacity around the world.

I was particularly struck by the similarities as well as the differences between the UK and The Netherlands, who were represented by the Vrijzinnigen Nederland (VJ) a liberal religious group about the same size as British Unitarians; but with fewer groups. I already have good contact with them and their director Wies Houweling has been to a British Unitarian Annual Meeting.

In one session I heard about a self led congregation and the phrase “professional amateur organisation” was used,  which I interpreted to mean that all that was done, although there was no paid “professional” leader, was of the highest quality. This congregations has grown from 60 to 100 members; with Sunday attendance from 10 to 40. They asked the members initially “if we change, do you want to be part of it?”

Over more than ten years they have changed the:
Role of the Board (ie the committee)
Role of the community – which is seen as a source of creativity as everyone has a special gift
Role of Sunday services (which is seen as the most important change)
The building – especially the symbols used

A positive approach was adopted to change but quality was key. Other learnings were that nothing is permanent and that renewal never stops. Infact; knowing that those activities that are going well will not last should make us look to the future and new ideas. Another lesson is to resist the temptation to compare yourself to others and that in the end you must find your own solution. Also, look to your roots for keys to the future.

This was reinforced by another session on the Dutch experience where it was emphasised that the liberal religion should be about connecting rather that separation as with orthodox religions with their focus on maintaining group identity. In a group we talked about how locally Unitarians can play a leadership role in connecting people. We of course often do this is individuals. The challenge is to reach out to other religious people and other groups; often simply to get them around a table when they would not otherwise be able to do so. So are their issues in your community that needed to be talked about but are not?

I shall be developing our relationship with Vrijzinnigen Nederland further as we have much to share and learn from each other. Their connections especially with other liberal groups and in the academic arena are particularly impressive and raise issues for us. So lots to do all round.

This blog first appeared in The Unitarian (September 2016) as "A View from Essex Hall"

Friday, 29 July 2016

Unitarians promote same sex marriage in Church

British Unitarian and Free Christians have used London Pride to promote same sex marriage in Church with the production of an inspiring and colourful video.

Unitarian congregations across the country from city centre churches to chapels in small towns have been registering their buildings for same sex marriage. In many counties and cities we are still often the only registered religious building where same sex marriages can be conducted. We did not marry anyone on the day of London Pride! Hopefully we highlighted that if a couple wished to have a religious or spiritual ceremony that this is now possible in a Unitarian Church

A list of Unitarian buildings registered for same sex marriage is available on the General Assembly's website 

The video was filmed at London Pride when thirty-five Unitarians and Free Christians from across London and the South East celebrated Pride on Saturday 2 July 2016. The banners included "Unitarians marry in Church" and "You can marry in a Unitarian Church".

An initiative of the London District and South East Provincial Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches the film was produced by West Creative. The production of the film was supported financially by the General Assembly. Thanks to Ed Fordham for all his hard work to organise the group.

Thursday, 28 July 2016

"The Light of the Spirit" - Chalice Meditation No 6.

Photo by John Hewerdine
It was a joy to share in worship at last week's conference of the International Association of Unitarians and Universalists (ICUU) at the Mennorode Centre, Nunspeek,The Netherlands,

Rev Kate Dean, Minister of Rosslyn Hill Chapel in Hampstead, London introduced us to one of the Chalice Meditations.The Chalice Meditations are a collection of sung meditations, with music by David Kent and words provided by Unitarian ministers from all parts of the UK.

David describes the Chalice Meditations as follows:

"When I was inspired to begin this project, my aim was to produce a prayerful resource that could be useful to congregations, regardless of their size. These pieces are written to be sung repetitively and to be easy to pick up for choirs and congregations alike.

The meditations can be sung in unison or in parts, unaccompanied, or backed by piano or guitar."

We sang very movingly on several occasions at morning worship Meditation No 6. "The Light of the Spirit" by Rev Sarah Tinker

"The light of the spirit is shining in you,
The light of the spirit is shining in me,
The light of the spirit is shining within,
So blessed we may be"

Sheet music, vocal guide and backing tracks are available - do go and listen.

Wednesday, 27 July 2016

150th Anniversary of birth of Beatrix Potter

Tomorrow 28 July 2016 marks the 150th Anniversary of the birth of Beatrix Potter, the well known author, illustrator and conservationist.

She was brought up in a wealthy Unitarian family with a Manchester background. Rupert and Helen (Leech) Potter were active Unitarians and their close friends included Rev James Martineau, Unitarian theologian and philosopher, and Rev William Gaskell, husband of the novelist Elizabeth Gaskell. Their social life revolved around the Unitarian community surrounding Manchester.

Unitarians across the North West will be celebrating over this weekend:

Stalybridge Unitarian Church, where Beatrix Potter opened a bazaar in 1912, will be open on 28 July and 29 July from 1.30 to 4.30 pm with an exhibition. Refreshments will be available.

John and William Leech gave a plot of land on the edge of the Gorse Hall estate to build the church, which is situated on Forester Drive, Stalybridge. Donations from the Leech and Potter families enabled the church to open free of debt in 1870. The foundation stone was laid by Mrs Jane Leech, Beatrix Potter's grandmother.

Hyde Chapel Gee Cross will be open to visitors on 28 July, 29 July and 30 July from 1.00 to 4.00 pm with a display showing the Potter family connection with the Chapel. Helen and Rupert Potter were married here in 1863 and members of the Potter, Leech and Ashton families are buried here. Light refreshments will be available.

Dukinfield Old Chapel, where members of the Leech family are buried will be open on 29 July from 1.30 to 4.00 pm and 30 July from 11.30 to 4.00 pm. On 31 July there will be a service at 2.00 pm when Rev Dr Ann Peart, former Principal of Unitarian College Manchester, will talk on "Beatrix Potter's Manchester Connections". There will be an exhibition and "well dressing". Refreshments will be available.

Cross Street Chapel in Manchester's city centre, where her ancestors worshipped, will be open from Friday 29 to Sunday 31th July with a small exhibition.

Image in public domain.

Wednesday, 13 July 2016

Theresa May inspired by Joseph Chamberlain Birmingham Unitarian?

Joseph Chamberlain has been in the news this morning as an inspiration for the new Prime Minister, Theresa May. Labour MP Gisela Stuart has written in The Daily Telegraph "Meet Joe Chamberlain, the lost Tory leader whose ideas drive Theresa May." In today's Times we see one of May's key advisers Nick Timothy described as a "Chamberlain Conservative". He has written of the legacy of Chamberlain

Historian Alan Ruston in "On The Side of Liberty" boldly asserts "Joseph Chamberlain was a Unitarian born and bred, a fact of which he was openly proud...He was attuned to those aspects of the Unitarian faith that were commonly emphasised in the second half of the nineteenth century; the values of individualism, self-reliance, moral earnestness, and social action" (page 49).

He was a radical never a conservative and certainly not a Tory; although he left the Liberal Party over Irish Home Rule to become a Liberal Unionist.

Garvin has written "Chamberlain's inward life until he was nearly forty was directed by his religious upbringing..We may find here the germ of his assertive independence: of his anti-official or anti-orthodox initiative throughout his political career; or of his executive force as a leader of social reform" (quoted by Ruston page 51).

How Theresa May will measure up to his radical heritage and practical administrative skills time will tell?

His two sons Austen and Neville both reached high political office; the latter of course Prime Minister.

"On the Side of Liberty" was launched by the Lindsey Press in April 2016 and is available from Essex Hall (020 7240 2384) or from all good online booksellers

He features in the Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography 

Image with permission on the National Portrait Gallery

Thursday, 16 June 2016

Hajom Kissor Singh and the Khasi Unitarians

One of the books I picked up at the second hand bookstall at the General Assembly Annual Meetings was “TŌ Nangroi: A Romance of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills” by Rev Magnus C. Ratter and published by the Lindsey Press in 1932. I always look out for publications that I have not seen before. We have a recently established archive of the Lindsey Press at Essex Hall, initiated by Howard Hague, however I did not think it was there. When I checked I was right. It is also not on the catalogue of Dr Williams’s Library. So it must be a rare book indeed. It was certainly out of print by 1945 when two chapters were reprinted in “Khasi Calls: An Adventure in Friendship” also by the Lindsey Press. I have added my copy to the archive.

Its significance is that it tells the tale of the Khasi Unitarians in North East India when they had been in existence for less than fifty years.  In an address recently at Rosslyn Hill Chapel I spoke about international Unitarianism and included these Unitarians who live in the Khasi Hills in the states of Assam and Megalaya. I recalled that their Unitarian story really began with a Khasi man named Hajom Kissor Singh. He was born in 1865 at Cherrapunjee - "the wettest place on earth".

I said “As the missionary schools were considered best, he not only got his education there, but he was also converted to their faith. Even as a child he showed interest in religious matters and his reading soon led him to asking questions about some aspects of Christianity. The idea of the trinity bothered him. He was looking for a religion more like the religion Jesus taught so he left the Calvinist faith. He read a book by William Ellery Channing and got in touch with a Unitarian Minister in Calcutta. Unitarianism  was exactly what he was looking for. He was a Unitarian even before he knew the name. Hajom Kissor Singh spent the rest of his life walking over the hills establishing nearly 40 Unitarian congregations which are still there - many in very remote villages. British Unitarians then offered support. Much later in the 1930s Rev Margaret Barr went to the Khasi Hills and devoted her life to the community; but never as a missionary. She was an educator and community builder. The General Assembly India Fund continues to offer support as does the Unitarian Women’s League.”

Reading “TŌ Nangroi”, which means “Progress Onwards”, gives a real sense of the achievement of Hajom Kissor Singh. Rev Ratter spent eighteen months in India from 1930. Whilst a British delegation had visited in 1928 it had been many years since the previous visits. As one man elderly greeted him “Good gracious, I’ve not seen a white Unitarian these thirty years!”.  In one of the hill villages it had been 37 years since the visit of the American Unitarian, Dr Sunderland. The book gives a fascinating description of the life of the Khasis and of their religious practices.      

Reflecting on the work of Hajom Kissor Singh I now realise the scale of what he did. We can glibly say that he was the founder of the Khasi Unitarians but this does not really convey the true nature of the man and his role. This Ratter captures well writing so soon after his death when his influence remained.

Looking more widely are their any lessons for us on church growth?. After all he went from zero members to 200 in ten years, continued to build and gain public recognition and leaves a legacy of a thriving Church today:

1. He was a remarkable man of “outstanding ability and keen spiritual perception” yet paid attention to his own development needs; for example, he studied theology under the postal guidance of Miss Emily Sharpe in 1893.
2. He sought outside  help and advice yet growth could only come from within. For most of the period described there was no resident external minister to lead or assist despite their pleas for help
3. He did not act alone; at the same time as he found Unitarianism another man, U. Heh Pohlong, the Khasi minister of an orthodox church at Nongtalang, was similarly exploring Unitarianism and had already formed a group. David Edwards, a trained worker, soon joined them and latter became the first ordained minister.
4. Conviction led to action but he started with one woman and two men in the original church in Jowai.
5. The generosity of external supporters in the US and then Britain supported their work.
6. The importance of women in leadership roles.
7. Caring for each other was as important as seeking new adherents.
8. Conflict and “quarrels” arise when “little-minded men” met “big issues.”
9. What was achieved was not without opposition, ridicule and disappointment – Ratter implies that his biggest may be the failure of Western Unitarians to send him a teacher - perhaps a rebuke to his British readers and a spur to action. His personal life was full of tragedy too.
10. His service-book was crucial to the preservation of the Unitarian Union; to Ratter it was a “unique and truly great achievement”. His writing was therefore of immense significance.

Some thoughts whilst you are washing the dishes! (as Rev Patrick O'Neill always said)

Thursday, 9 June 2016

Fleeing Persecution: Asylum Claims in the UK on Religious Freedom grounds

The All Party Parliamentary Group on International Freedom of Religion and Belief launched its latest report in Parliament on 7 June 2016 which I was pleased to attend. "Fleeing Persecution: Asylum Claims in the UK on Religious Freedom grounds" was jointly produced with the Asylum Advocacy Group.

I was impressed by the positive approach and realism underpinning the report and the work of the APPG and the Asylum Advocacy Group.  It is recognised that some applications are not credible, which need to be identified as well as genuine claims that are not being accepted and that Home Office staff have to make incredibly nuanced and difficult decisions.There is a clear desire to work closely with the Home Office to improve the support and training of their staff to improve the quality of decison-making. Bishop Angaelos, who also spoke at the CCJ event I attended on 27 May, was, as usual, forthright and well informed.

Prof Geoff Gilbert of the School of Law and Human Rights Centre at the University of Essex pointed out that persecution on religious grounds was often seen as an identifier for other characteristics and was easy to be over-looked. He reaffirmed the significance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees but that as there was no international refugee Court decisions were made on a country by country basis although jurisdictions did influence each other. He saw the development of the concept of "cumulative discrimination" over the next few years.

The parallels drawn with the experiences of LGBT asylum seekers was interesting and merits further exploration. The same issues with credibility seems to recur.

The report can be found at Freedom Declared website of the Group

Friday, 27 May 2016

City Breakfast Seminar on Relgious Freedom

 It was a pleasure, though an early start today, to attend a breakfast seminar arranged by the Council of Christians and Jews (CCJ) on "Religious Freedom - Is it on the decline? What is its future?"

Three speakers gave their personal perspectives to a large audience; His Excellency David Saperstein, (Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom for President Obama) Christina Odone (Director of Centre for Character and Values, Legatum Institute, ex-editor of the Catholic Herald) and His Grace Bishop Angaelos OBE (General Bishop of the Coptic Orthodox Church in the UK), Vice President of the CCJ and Vice President of the Jewish Leadership Council, Henry Grunwald kindly chaired the seminar.

David Saperstein answered the question as "Yes" and "No" by quoting from Pew reports that 78% of the world's population suffer serious restrictions on religious freedom, which has slowly risen yet three quarters of all countries don't restrict freedom. He highlighted the important role of the Reports of the State Department in "naming and lifting up the plight of the oppressed" with a new report being published in two weeks. He ended by stressing the importance of of the interfaith community working together and that they can make a difference.

Christina Odone suggested that believers in Britain were "being harassed and held in contempt because of their faith". She saw a conflict between people of faith and those she saw as "liberals". This extreme conservative approach, smacked to me of the same intolerance against people of faith she spoke about.  We need to break down stereotypes and draw on the well-known words of Pastor Neimoller, as Bishop Angaelos actually did, about doing nothing when they came for those of other groups and having no one to protect us when they came for us.

During question time Ambassador Saperstein noted the challenges of civil rights in tension and reminded the audience of past discrimination against various groups with "no Catholics or blacks" signs.

Bishop Angaelos is a fine example of what can be achieved by someone from a small community of faith committed to working together with others of like-mind but conscious of the demands of modern media, He said that the situation of religious minorities in the Middle East was complex and building up over the decades. He urged religious leaders not to be tribal and speak only for their "clan". In the question time he saw the need to be reactive and responsive to changes in society or religion would become irrelevant.

The meeting was hosted by Investec and thanks to them and CCJ trustee Zaki Cooper for organising the event.

Monday, 23 May 2016

What is a Unitarian? New video

"What is a Unitarian?" is a new video produced for the General Assembly which explores how British Unitarians see their faith today.

For more information

In the last six days it has been viewed 518 times so is clearly popular.

Thanks to Sarah West of West Creative.

Thursday, 19 May 2016

"The Vanguard of the Age" - the wall paintings of Edward Armitage at Dr Williams's Library

Preparatory sketch of James Martineau
There are many hidden treasures at Dr Williams's Library in London's Gordon Square but the most notable must be the wall paintings of Edward Armitage RA. The mural was painted in what was then the dining hall of University Hall (now the lecture hall of Dr Williams's Library) in memory of Henry Crabb Robinson. It was commissioned by his friends and completed by an advisory committee. 

Edward Armitage RA was a prominent figure in the Victorian art world and a regular exhibitor at the Royal Academy.

It shows Crabb Robinson surrounded by his most distinguished literary and artistic friends. These include Wordsworth, Coleridge, Mary and Charles Lamb and Blake. Crabb Robinson had travelled in Germany and this accounts for the portraits of Goethe, Tieck, von Schiller and Herder. In total there were 47 portraits. At the end Armitage added a self-portrait with palette and brushes in hand.

The entire mural was covered over in the mid-1950s under whitewash and wallpaper and is known from engravings. It was fascinating to see some of Armitage's preparatory sketches and two of the engravings in the exhibition expertly curated by Jane Giscombe, a conservator at Dr Williams's Library. Tom Sawyer's evening lecture gave an insight into the murals and was, of course, delivered in the Hall in which we were acutely aware they remain "hidden" surrounding us! Descendants of both Armitage and Crabb Robinson were in the audience.

Lady Byron talks to Rev F W Robertson
As a prominent Unitarian Crabb Robinson had many friends from the Unitarian community and these feature strongly illustrating their contribution to literary, cultural and political life. Mrs Barbauld and Lady Anne Byron are two Unitarian women included; both influential in the development of education. Other Unitarians are Gilbert Wakefield; scholar and "political fanatic", Mark Philips MP, Thomas Thornley MP, Edwin Field; lawyer and law reformer; and three Unitarian ministers; Revs James Martineau, Lant Carpenter and John James Tayler.

The exhibition at Dr Williams's Library can be viewed by appointment by telephoning 020 7387 3727.    

Friday, 26 February 2016

"I am Thomas" - Thomas Aikenhead Unitarian Martyr

"I am Thomas - a brutal comedy with songs", created by "Told by an Idiot", the composer Iain Johnstone and poet Simon Armitage is now on tour.

It tells the tale of Thomas Aikenhead - the last person to be executed in Britain for blasphemy.

Amongst other statements overheard, he denied the Trinity and was reported, tried, sentenced to death and publicly hanged. He is remembered as one of the Unitarian martyrs.

It provides a salutary tale when freedom of speech is still challenged in so many parts of the world and blasphemy remains a crime.

I have not seen it yet but hope to do so when it comes to London in late April at Wilton's Music Hall.

Wednesday, 3 February 2016

Unitarians "the awkward squad"

Screen shot of me asking a question to the Panel
The British Academy, the UK's premier body for humanities and the social sciences has been promoting consideration of the role of "Faith" and last week held a debate on the intriguing question "Who cares if Britain is not a Christian country?". It actually turned into a discussion of the role of the Church of England as the Established Church in England (but not of course in Scotland where the Church of Scotland is established nor in Wales or Northern Ireland which disestablished their Anglican churches).

Professor Iain McLean in his discussion of marriage law indicated that the Unitarians succeeded the Quakers as the "awkward squad" in the late 1700's. Unitarians were thought to be much more dangerous; they dressed like everyone else! (see from 58:50)

I managed to get called to ask the final question which asked about whether the Church of England would be willing to include multi-faith elements if it becomes more of a sect as speakers had suggested. This prompted the usual pithy and slightly humorous responses to the final question. This is found at 1:23:46.

Friday, 29 January 2016

“Conscientious Objection 100 years on” - Richard Durning Holt’s Diary

This week I attended a Reception at the Houses of Parliament arranged by Quakers in Britain to mark the 100th Anniversary of the Military Service Act. Rev Feargus O’Connor of the Unitarian Peace Fellowship was able to join me. We were reminded of the significance of the introduction of conscription and of the conscience clause in the Act providing for conscientious objection to military service which was a fundamental shift towards individual freedoms. Conscientious objection is now recognised as a universal human right but not yet implemented across the world. 

Richard Durning Holt (1868-1941) was prominent among those Liberals who tried without success to oppose the legislation. He was a member of a famous Liverpool Unitarian family and was Liberal MP for Hexham between 1907 and 1918 and prominent in Liverpool affairs and later nationally for the first three decades of the twentieth century. Another Unitarian opponent was H G Chancellor, MP for Haggerston.  Unitarians and World War 1 is a previous blog entry of mine.

Holt’s diary records his opposition and his disappointment at the outcome. It is held at Liverpool City library and an edition was published in 1988 by “The Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire” (Vol CXX1X) by David J. Dutton. With the title “Odyssey of an Edwardian Liberal: the political diary of Richard Durning Holt” it offers some interesting insights on the passage of conscription Bill in early 1916.

Dulton points out that Holt felt that” the War was demanding unacceptable measures of encroachment by the state” (page 41). He was committed to the late 19th Century Liberal, and indeed nonconformist approach, to support for peace and voluntaryism along with restricting the role of the State.

2 January “The years opens with a gale and every prospect of political disturbance for the Prime Minister has let it be known that he has adopted the policy of conscription towards which the Tories have been pressing him for the past twelve months.”

9 January “On Wednesday and Thursday we debated the Conscription Bill, Sir J. Simon, who resigned the Home Secretaryship on the question, leading the opposition. They was a good deal of excitement and I thought the opponents made out a case (I was one of them) but sentimentality and fear of defeating the Government carried the day and we were defeated by 403 to 105. I told for the minority and also spoke I had hoped for a better show but several of our friends failed us at the last moment including dear J.W. Wilson, Chas. Hobhouse who was very strong against conscription most unaccountably went back on us, made an inconclusive speech and abstained.”

16 January “Came home on Thursday. We debated the Conscription bill on Tuesday and Wednesday when the Irish deserted us and some others and the division was 431 to 39. I did not speak but voted of course.

4 February “The little group who had opposed conscription formed themselves into a permanent organisation – Sir J. Simon, chairman, Whitehouse, secretary, J.H. Thomas, the railway men’s representative, Leif Jones and R.D.H. committee.”

He records that on 25 February 1918 he had attended what Dutton calls an “important” meeting at Essex Hall to support Lord Lansdowne’s proposals for peace by negotiation (17 March 1918).

He paid the price. The public did not share his views and neither did his local party and he was “forced” to seek another seat at the forthcoming General Election. 

Throughout his life Holt was active in Unitarian affairs. In 1903 he spoke at the National Triennial Conference held in Liverpool proposing a resolution condemning the Education Act. In 1918 he records that he was elected President of the British and Foreign Unitarian Association “an office I always coveted for the childish reason that I was the first whose great-grandfather (Richard Potter, MP for Wigan) had held it” (11 June 1918).  

Out of Parliament, having been defeated in 1918, he chaired a public meeting of the Liverpool District Missionary Society with Dr Estlin Carpenter and Sir Alfred Booth speaking in support of the League of Nations idea at the Royal Institution (19 January 1919). He chaired a meeting at the Unitarian Memorial Hall in Manchester which passed a resolution demanding that the Versailles Treaty be referred to the League of Nations (6 February 1923). 

An early diary entry sets out his Unitarian beliefs. Reflecting on the year end (31 December 1900) he notes:

“I trust and believe that the future will show an increase in and a strengthening of our own views of simple Christianity which I believe to be the true basis on which to establish the community.  I know I have expressed my meaning badly: I don’t want any established church – Unitarian or otherwise. What I mean is that in the main it is the belief that what God wants of man is that he do right, i.e. love his neighbour, and not that he profess particular theological opinions or requires a consecrated place or an ordained priest, which will bring with it a great improvement in our social and political conditions”.

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